Proposed Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor
A torus, about 10 cm in diameter wound with ten turns of copper pipe round the small diameter (2cm) of the torus so that it forms a Farady coil connected to a 100pF capacitor is the device. The hollow glass torus has low pressure hydrogen gas inside.
A 3-50KW radio frequency power is applied across the winding at its resonant frequency. The plasma generated is contained in a ring near the centre of the toroidal pyrex tube. The heat generated in the plasma by Ohmic heating makes the temperature approach 200 MK (according to calculations) and fusion reactions occur.
During the radio frequency cycle the pressure increases and drops at a frequency of twice the exciting frequency and thermonuclear fusion reactions increase the temperature during the high pressure cycle and this extra energy is passed to the radio frequency current during the next half cycle. Consequently power generated by the thermonuclear reactions is passed to the electrical circuit. When the power generated exceeds the losses then oscillations are maintained and the exciting radio frequency current input may be switched off.
I order to limit the power of the reaction negative feedback is needed, this is not included in the circuit.
Useful power is collected by a loosely coupled mutual inductance.
With only protons in the fusion process I don't think there will be neutrons produced and the gamma photons would be absorbed by the ionised gas.
This is based on theory and simple experiments not involving high power.
Not included originally: 1 Diagram in mono and 1 page description.
The containment of the plasma is by repulsion between the radio frequency current in the coil around the torus and the induced radio frequency current in the plasma. This is highest near the coil wire and reaches a minimum near the mid line of the coils around the torus tube.
The reason for this assertion is based on calculations using the biot-savart hypothesis for force between current elements in a torus or a loop of wire or a solenoid for short coils (all real coils are short). It shows a force toward the midline of a solenoid that is high near the winding and a minimum near the mid line. The force follows a 1/d law from the wire (approximately) and the field forms a V. This has been tested by simple experiments with a tangent galvanometer movement (a compass needle) in the DC case (this showed that the magnetic field is higher near the winding than near the centre line) and with a shorted loop in the AC case.
In this diagram, it may be seen that the surface area of the plasma is much less than the surface area of the inside of the torus of windings that contain it. Thus there will be a force toward the centre, which is constant along the radius but the area of a torus at a particular radius will decrease toward the circle of the centre. Thus as the plasma contracts the pressure on it will increase. The area is 2(pi)rl, where l is the length of a line drawn round the circle of the torus of the plasma at the point. So as the radius of the plasma decreases the pressure increases as 1/r. Thus near the centre the pressure will increase very rapidly without any stress on the containing torus of windings. This makes the achievement of very high pressure possible through moderate current in the windings.
The power estimate for initiating the reaction are based on the mass of gas and specific heat and on ohmic heating of the plasma by the radio frequency induced current.
The transfer of power from the plasma to the radio frequency current is by the principle of the parametric amplifier, the plasma bouncing at twice the radio frequency of the current.
I am not able to test this idea as I do not have the resources. I would like to be sponsored to test my idea at the Culham laboratory, with sufficient technical support.
If successful I would like £100,000 a year for my invention for which I have applied for patent protection (Patent office Ref: 0509184.8).
Power Level Control
I have stated that the power level my be controlled by negative feedback. One way to do this is by using a tap on the inductor winding on the torus and using a variable transformer feedback the power in the reverse sense to reduce the oscillations amplitude.
This feedback transformer could be a saturable reactor controlled by an electronic circuit.
This would sense the amplitude of the oscillations and limit them to a defined level, by increasing the feedback the oscillations would cease and the reactor would close down.
A voltage clamp is a better idea with the terminals of the tank circuit connected to a bridge rectifier with a power transistor or neon tube to clamp the voltage at a safe level, the transistor switch on needs to be controlled by a reference voltage with a differential amplifier to control the transistor turn on point. The power level could then be controlled by a potentiometer.