New Electricity

 

Magnetic Field Due to Current

The model proposed by Maxwell that relies on the current loop and is worked out by Gauss an example of fluid mechanics (to make the mathematics beautiful and easy), and is based around the Pythagorean philosophy of perfection is not only just a bit out by completely wrong based on the wrong principles. The correct answer is by using the concept of 4 -perspective with virtual photons emanating from individual electrons drifting through the fixed positive charges in a conductor. The relative movement of the charges makes an electrostatic force between current carrying conductors. I the case of alternating current the real photons emitted by the electrons as the change from one velocity to the next in the particle in a box ladder (quantum mechanics) interact with the electrons around them to cause them to change energy according to the rules of quantum mechanics. This gives rise to a calculation (integration round the loop) that shows that another current loop inside has a force of compression on it and a net force that tend to move it to a position symmetrical about the axis. The force is higher near the current loop and drops towards the axis. Measurements support this. Since a solenoid is a series of loop this is true for these too.
 

The model of flux flowing through a loop of current is the concept that is wrong. The mathematics the gauss used is  correct it is the physics that is wrong.

There is no electric field. The force between electrons is carried by virtual photons that connect one electron with one electron in another place. It is an exchange force. They do not drop in force with distance the density of photons varies with distance as the inverse square of the distance so the probability of interaction goes down with distance, for massive objects it gives you the inverse square law of coulomb.

The electron itself is a photon that cannot propagate because of its own self gravity. The enclosed self energy is such that the photon cannot propagate. "Stuck light" in fact. This photon is waving outside the stuck place so its influence can be felt over an infinite distance. In fact, using the group x phase velocity = constant we have that for electrons the group velocity is 0 and the constant is c so the phase velocity is infinite. so for some interactions like entanglement (a consequence of Fermi (electrons come in pairs - up and down) ) then the change of an electron up to down that is tangled with it pair 10 light years away will be felt instantaneously and the other member of the pair will change from down to up with no loss of amplitude.

This might be of interest too ...

A virtual particle is one that does not exist (by definition).

In classical electromagnetism radiation from a dipole there are two Hertzian waves, the space wave that leaves the dipole and carries energy and momentum with it and the induction field which does not radiate but whose energy
passes back to the radiator.

The space wave is a radiant energy field whose power is E.X.H (the vector product of E and H) this is known as Poynting's (it is a man's name) vector this has a frequency f. Now this actually consists of (E x H)/hf photons per second each having an energy hf. These photons are the result of transitions inside the conductor of the dipole as the electrons jump from one level to another (according to microwave theory this is at the permitted frequency of
the exciter) as they do so the emit a photon carrying the energy hf, the total momentum change. They do not weaken with the inverse square law they connect with another electron in a random manner such that all their energy and total momentum is taken up by the electron. The density of these photons diminishes as the inverse square of the distance and with the polar diagram of the radiator.

The induction field is the one with the virtual photons they do not propagate and collapse back to their emitting electrons.

Mutual and Self Inductance

Mutual and Self Inductance are quantum mechanical effects involving photons inside the inductance.  Think of Fyneman.


The acceleration of charges generates photons according to hf where the frequency of the sinusoid exciter if f and h Planck's constant.  The number of photons is the energy of the sinusoid divided by hf. These photons are emitted and absorbed during the cycle making inductance. The photons are emitted by one electron when it makes a transition to another level the step is at the energy corresponding frequency of the exciter it is connected only to one other electron that changes its energy by the same amount, the photon also caries the angular momentum associated with the transition, this is the change of angular momentum and the vector difference in momentum between the two energy states. The photons interact randomly without any loss of energy, momentum or angular momentum but the distribution of the interactions means that the density falls according to the inverse square law and the radiation polar diagram. This applies to mutual and self inductance and to normal radiation from a wire.

When a solenoid is subjected to a step function then the photons have a distribution of frequency similar to a radiating black body (see Planck who worked out the messy equation) and are re-absorbed at the same time causing the effect of self inductance.

If you make a single loop of wire bent into a circle and pass a regulated 1 amp current through it you will make a "magnetic field". According to Gauss you have to imagine it is there and calculate accordingly. Then comes an extraordinary performance of human intellect beginning with the magnetic shells
construction that shows that the field is uniform across the plane of the loop.

According to Carl Popper we should now measure it to see. Using a compass as a tangent galvanometer with the earth's field as a reference you can measure the relative strength of the field in the region of the magnet by measuring its deflection (according to the field theory). I have done this and the field is about three times higher near the wire than at the centre. This disproves the magnetic shell construction.

Another basic algorithm is the idea that a series of loops is like one loop multiplied. Well if you do the same thing for six turns then the compass measurement is the same near the wire than at the centre.

This shows that the basic algorithm of what is true on one is true of many as one times the number of repetitions, is false.

I would like to propose a different model: that the magnet is responding to spin-spin interactions as a quantum mechanical effect. These are entirely electrostatic in nature.

The magnetic field does not exist it is fictitious.

The model of the magnetic effect of current is in reality the Lorenz contraction of the moving electrons relative to the fixed charges in the wire and the electrostatic force is mediated by virtual photons.

Since the electrons always occupy the same space in the wire even though they are moving it shows that special relativity is an effect like perspective.

The inductive effect is in reality caused by the acceleration of electrons. Now these little charged particles are governed by quantum mechanics and the energy states up the ladder are discontinuous and the electrons jump from one state to the next the two states overlap and during the transition a fluctuation occurs and a photon emission occurs, just like the hydrogen spectrum.

This photon interacts with just one electron in another wire or the same wire and imparts momentum and energy to change the electron from its original state to its new state. This also means that the photon carries momentum both
linear and angular and energy.
 

This is both mutual and self inductance.



Electromagnetism


Electromagnetism theory reached its pinnacle in the nineteenth century with Maxwell's famous equations.

Let us take two examples.

The case of two parallel conductors carrying current.

 

1. Currents parallel.

 

 The current is a slow movement of electrons with fixed positive charges. The electrons are moving parallel in the two wires so are stationary relative to each other.  The positive charges are seen as moving.  According to Einstein's theory of relativity the length of the positive charge is contracted as seen by the electrons and so the electrons see an increased charge density over the charge density of the electrons.  This makes the force of attraction between unlike charges slightly greater than the force of repulsion between unlike charges. This means that there is a net force of attraction.

 

2. Currents anti-parallel.

 

The electrons are now moving anti-parallel and so they see a length contraction of the other electron charge.  The positive charges are also seen contracted but not as much.  So the electrons are seen as having a greater charge density than the fixed positive charges. Thus the force of repulsion of like charges is greater than the force of attraction of unlike charges.  This means there is a net force of repulsion.

 

1. Currents parallel.

 The current is a slow movement of electrons with fixed positive charges. The
electrons are moving parallel in the two wires so are stationary relative to each other.  The positive charges are seen as moving.  According to Einstein's theory of relativity the length of the positive charge is contracted as seen
by the electrons and so the electrons see an increased charge density over the charge density of the electrons.  This makes the force of attraction between unlike charges slightly greater than the force of repulsion between unlike
charges. This means that there is a net force of attraction.

2. Currents anti-parallel.


The electrons are now moving anti-parallel and so they see a length contraction of the other electron charge.  The positive charges are also seen contracted but not as much.  So the electrons are seen as having a greater charge density than the fixed positive charges. Thus the force of repulsion of like charges is greater than the force of attraction of unlike charges.  This means there is a net force of repulsion. Induction. Consider two conducting wires parallel. One conductor has an alternating current flowing in it.  This means that the electrons are accelerating and thus their electric field lines have a kink in them so there is a transverse component this field moves the electrons in
the other wire. Thus producing an induced potential. The magnitude of the induced potential would be proportional to the rate of change of the current in the first conductor.

1) currents parallel and 2) currents antiparallel.

 

 

 

Case 1) Currents parallel;

 

The positive charges are fixed and charges in wire I repel those in wire 2 with a force per meter of +(Ne.Ne/r)eO where N is the number of electrons in 1 meter and r the separation in meters, eO is the permittivity of free space.

 

The electrons in wire 1 see the electrons in wire 2 as fixed as well so they see a force between them of +(Ne.Ne/r)eO

 

The electrons in wire 1 see a force of attraction between them and the fixed charges in the wire but because there is relative motion the force is -(Ne.Ne/r)eO/sqr( 1-(v/c)2).

 

The electrons in wire 2 see a force of attraction between them and the fixed charges in the wire and this again is -(Ne.Ne/r)eO/(sqr( 1-(v/c)2)

 

so the total force is +2(Ne.Ne/r)-2(Ne.Ne/reO/sqr( 1-v/c)2)

 

this is: 2(Ne.Ne/r)eO( 1- 1/sqr( 1-vIc)2).

 

1/sqr(1-(v/c)2)=(l-(v/c)2)(-l./2) = (1+(1/2)(v/c)2  ) to a first term approximation for low velocities.

 

so the force is approximately: 2(Ne.Ne/r)eO( 1-1 +( 1/2)(vIc2)

 

2(Ne.Ne/r)eO( 1/2)(vlc)2= (Ne.Ne/r)v2/c2=(Nve.Nve/r)eO/c2

 

since Nve=I the current then the force is + (iA2Ir)eO/cA2 since WIcA2uO the permeability of free space then the force is µO(i.i/r) the normal answer found by experiment.

 

In the case of the currents anti parallel the analysis is similar but the result is a similar force of repulsion.

 

The hr force law is derived by integrating along the wire with wire elements repelling other wire elements by the inverse square law.

 

This is a well known result from electrostatics. So magnetism is actually the same as electrostatics and does away with any need for magnetism. This simplifies things but invalidates electromagnetism theory.

 

 

 

In the case of a curved wire as in a circular loop the force on an element carrying current is:

 

µO(idLidl/r2)Sin(theta) where theta is the angle between them (biot-savart proved above). To find the force on an element in a circular loop you integrate all round the loop.

In the case of a curved wire as in a circular loop the force on an element carrying current is:

Pe is the permeablity of free space.

 

X=0.001 Y=0

The X force is

 

 

 

 

 They Y force is:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This means any gaseous conductor tends to the axis of the loop.

If you include a current of 1000 amps in the formula you get:

 

 

Force N

 

 

 

 

Pressure (Pa)

That gives a net force towards the centre that increases from the axis towards the wire as the value of r is varied for each integration.

On the other hand the pressure rises slightly towards  the axis. 

If you use a loop of wire inside carrying a current the force tends to push the loop to the centre.

If the inner conductor is displaced by -0.01 meter the restoring force is:

 

N

 

and if by +0.01 then the restoring force is:

 

N

 

So the conducting gas tends to remain along the axis.

 

These principles can be used to design machines that contain plasma for generating power using alternating current, transformers and motors using less iron than is usual and levitating ovens that can purify metal in a vacuum without needing a crucible.

 

 

Electromagnetism

 

The reasoning below shows that there is no magnetic field it is a false concept. Iron filings are not an indication of strength at all. It is a fallacy.

This theory is based around the special theory of relativity and the relative motion of electrons and fixed charges in a conductor.

With alternating current the electrons are accelerating and generate photons at the exciting frequency and this radiation is responsible for other aspects of electromagnetism.  This includes the induction of current in one conductor by alternating current in another.

 

Induction

Consider two conducting wires parallel. One conductor has an alternating current flowing in it.  This means that the electrons are changing their energy and emit photons at the exciting frequency these are emitted in random directions like a messenger with the energy change and momentum (angular and linear) and these are absorbed by electrons in another conductor nearby and this information is transferred by photon collision to make the electrons in the other wire move thus inducing an current.


In all these cases no magnetic field was required to account for the phenomena involved. So invoking Occum's razor, the magnetic field in not required and so does not exist. Consider two long straight copper conductors each carrying the same current  in the same direction. The electrons move together at the same velocity in each cable. They repel one another. The fixed positive charges repel each other. However the electrons wire A attract the fixed charges in wire B but because the electrons are moving relative to the fixed charges they will see a higher charge density than the charge density due to the electrons in B so the attraction of electrons to fixed positive charges is higher than the repulsion between the
same number of electrons in B. Similarly for electrons in wire B and the fixed positive charges in wire A. n=number of atoms per meter e=electronic charge d=separation l=length P=permittivity v=drift velocity of electrons c=velocity of light
The force of repulsion is P*2*((e*n)^2)*l /d (= F)
And the force of attraction is P*(2*((e*n)^2)*l/d)/sqr(1-(v/c)^2)
So the resultant force is F-F/sqr(1-(v/c)^2)=F(1-1/sqr(1-(v/c)^2))
=F(1-(1-(v/c)^2)^(-1/2))
=F(1-(1+(1/2)(v/c)^2))
= F(v/c)^2/2
= (P*2*((e*n)^2)*l/d)(v/c)^2/2
= (P/c)*(((e*n*v)^2)*l/d)
=(P/c)*i^2*l/d (e*n*v=i)
So P/c is the "permeability" and the force is proportional to the current squared and the length but inversely proportional to the separation. There is no need for the idea of the magnetic field. There is no magnetic field
 

Experimental Test

Karl Popper has explained the scientific method.  Use the predictions of the theory and test experimentally when judging a philosophical idea.

Science in only science if you carry out experiments to test the theories of yourself or another.  To play philosophical games with words and equations is not science.

Go get a bit of wire make a straight part 40 cm long and connect it to a constant current source of say 1 amp.

Get the old electrostatic kit out of the 18th century box and using a glass rod wiped with silk make a pith ball coated with gold leaf charged by bringing the glass rod close to the ball and touch the ball briefly with a finger. The ball will be repelled by the glass rod.

Put the pith ball (suspended by a silk thread from a curved glass stand) near the wire and note the deflection from the vertical when the current is switched on.

I predict it will be repelled if negatively charged and attracted if positively charged. (confirmed)

A bar magnet is in fact a group of spinning electrons which are coupled by spin-spin interactions (Quantum mechanics) that are mediated by virtual photons again a force that is electronic and connected to the Lorenz contraction.. The force on another bar magnet is actually due to spin-spin interactions (Quantum mechanics) which is electronic and related to the Lorenz contraction. A loop of wire carrying a current is again interacting with another current carrying conductor by the electrostatic force (mediated by virtual photons) and is again a result of the Lorenz contraction. The calculation to use is the biot-savart hypothesis (force between current elements) integrated. In view of this new insight we should re-name magnetism as the "Lorenz force". It also means that many of our reasoning based on observations made 300 years ago before Einstein developed his special theory of relativity are misconceived as they are based on the wrong model.
 

The Gaussian construction  of magnetic shells does not come into it there is no magnetic flux or lines of force.
 

As a disclaimer I will point out that I am not the first or only person to point this out.


There is no electric field.

The force between electrons is carried by virtual photons that connect one electron with one electron in another place. It is an exchange force. They do not drop in force with distance the density of photons varies with distance as the inverse square of the distance so the probability of interaction goes down with distance, for massive objects it gives you the inverse square law of coulomb. The electron itself is a photon that cannot propagate because of its own self gravity. The enclosed self energy is such that the photon cannot propagate. "Stuck light" in fact. This photon is waving outside the stuck place so its influence can be felt over an infinite distance. In fact, using the group x phase velocity = constant we have that for electrons the group velocity is 0 and the constant is c so the phase velocity is infinite. so for some interactions like entanglement (a consequence of being fermions (electrons come in pairs - up and down) ) then the change of an electron up to down that is tangled with it pair 10 light years away will be felt instantaneously and the other member of the pair will change from down to up with no loss of amplitude.

This might be of interest to ... A virtual particle is one that does not exist (by definition). In classical electromagnetism radiation from a dipole there are two Hertzian waves, the space wave that leaves the dipole and carries energy and momentum with it and the induction field which does not radiate but whose energy passes back to to the radiator. The space wave is a radiant energy field whose power is E.X.H (the vector product of E and H) this is known as Poynting's (it is a man's name) vector this has a frequency f. Now this actually consists of (E x H)/hf photons per second each having an energy hf. These photons are the result of transitions inside the conductor of the dipole as the electrons jump from one level to another (according to microwave theory this is at the permitted frequency of the exciter) as they do so they emit a photon carrying the energy hf, the total momentum change (think of it like a messenger). They do not weaken with the inverse square law they connect with another electron in a random manner such that all their energy and total momentum is taken up by the electron. The density of these photons diminishes as the inverse square of the distance and with the polar diagram of the radiator. The induction field is the one with the virtual photons they do not propagate and collapse back to their emitting electrons.

A static charge is surrounded by virtual photons and these give rise to the force between charged objects. In reality an electron is a stuck photons and it interacts one on one and onto with one stuck photon in another place in a random manner like Schrödinger’s matter waves. The virtual photon has to “travel” from its base at the stuck photon but can only be seen by its interaction with another stuck photon. It does have its influence at the speed of light, I think. Think in terms of the stuck photon being an electron and the electron spending some of its time elsewhere in a random manner and it collides with stuck photons elsewhere.

 

Try thinking in terms of a photon as a "messenger" with numbers attached: the momentum change as a vector and angular momentum change as another vector.  It looks like a short burst of electric wobbles, but in fact it is the signal from a distant electron interfering with itself as it settles to its new state. The influence is the electron itself waving that is felt at a distance.

This is not entanglement.

 

The electron is energy (shall we say a disturbance in the shape of electric space) that cannot propagate because the energy it made changes the geodesic it is in into a loop so it gets stuck. This can influence other electrons at a distance after a propagation delay as their wave functions interact.

 The group x phase velocity = c so for electrons as g>=0 then p<= infinity (nearly) the Fermi principle states that electrons exist in pairs up + down so conservation says if E1 up>down then E2 down>up and they “know” at the phase velocity.

 

Communication by quantum entanglement

 

Experiment: use mixed water separated then frozen and use a loop with a magnetic field to flip the up/down because in a magnetic field they have different energies and with another loop around the other sample from the same bucket and similar magnet detect the flips, this is communication by quantum entanglement good for light years and nearly instant. The connection is secure as only bucket 1 has the entanglement so bucket 2 won’t see it.

Not what you think at all.